Jigs and Fixtures

With the rapid advancement in manufacturing technology, consumerism has increased over the years. Therefore, to meet the higher demands, manufacturers have come up with innovative methods of producing high-quality products at a much faster rate.

The production process has observed the introduction of inventive manufacturing concepts such as Lean Production System, Cellular Manufacturing, Single Minute Exchange of Dies, and Tact Time Analysis. These creative approaches require the need for a horde of efficient, cheaper tools, and work-holding devices.

The manufacturing company requires a simple work positioning strategy and devices for correct operations. This is to ensure:

  • Non-complexities in assembly and unit cost reduction,
  • Reduction in the massive manufacturing cost, and
  • Increase their profitability.

The industry has resorted to easing upthe supply chain in a bid to maintaining a low amount of inventory. This resulted in the emergence of better and cost-effective work-holding devices which ensure better quality products, increase throughput, and reduce lead time. The requirement for production standard work-holding devices has paved the way for two specific terms named: Jigs and Fixtures.

The jig is the device which guides the tool, while the fixture is a tool that securely and firmly holds the job in position during machining operations.

Jigs

In simple terms, a jig is a tool that guides the machining tool.

A common type of jig is the drill jig, which guides the drill for making holes at desired locations. Using drill jigs increases production rate drastically.

 

Fixtures

A fixture is a tool which firmly grips a workpiece on the machine bed accurately at the desired location. The fixture also reduces the loading, unloading, and fixing the time of the workpiece, which significantly reduces the non-productive hours.

 

 

Difference between Jig and Fixture

“Jig” and “Fixture” are many times referred to as the synonyms of each other while sometimes both of them are used together as jig fixture. Although both jig and fixture are used in the mass production process, functionally the two are quite different tools.

Let us go through the main points which differs a Jig from a fixture

 

Jig
Fixture

A jig controls and guides the machining tool

A fixture holds and supports the component precisely for machining operations

Jig ensures accuracy, repeatability, and interchangeability

The fixture provides a reduction in error by holding a component firmly on a table

Jigs are usually on the lighter side

The fixture is bulky, rigid and heavy

Jigs can be put in place and held by hand pressure

Fixtures are always placed firmly on a machine table

Drilling, reaming, tapping, boring are some of the standard jig functions

Fixtures are used explicitly in milling machine, slotting machine and shapers

Jigs cost more

Fixtures are not that cost-savvy compared to Jigs

Jigs require intricate design operations

Fixture design operations are relatively less complicated

 

Advantages of Jigs and Fixtures

Jigs and Fixtures have made manufacturing processes less time consuming, more precise, and hassle-free from a human factor perspective. The benefits of jigs and fixtures including but not limited to, the following:

  • Increase in production
  • The consistent quality of manufactured products due to low variability in dimension
  • Cost reduction
  • Inter-changeability and high accuracy of parts
  • Inspection and quality control expenses are significantly reduced
  • The decrease in an accident with improved safety standards
  • Due to relatively simple manoeuvrability, semi-skilled workers can operate these tools which reduce the cost of the workforce.
  • The machine tool can be automated to a reasonable extent
  • Complex, rigid and, heavy components can be easily machined
  • Simple assembly operations reduce non-productive hours
  • Eliminates the need for measuring, punching, positioning, alignments, and setting up for each work-piece thereby reducing the cycle and set up a time
  • Increases technological capacities of machine tools
  • More than one device can be used simultaneously on a work-piece
  • Setting of higher values of some operating conditions like depth of cut, speed, and rate of feed can be attained because of the increased clamping capability of jigs and fixtures.

Both jigs and the fixtures are used to ease up machining operations and reduce the non-productive time of any mass production process. The principle of location or the 3-2-1 principle, CAD tools, and FEA tools are used for the design of both jigs and fixtures. In the next article, we will go through more detailed information about 3-2-1 principle and design standards of jigs and fixtures. 

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Mesh

For those acquainted with mechanical design and reverse engineering, they can testify to the fact that the road to a new product design involves several steps. In reverse engineering, the summary of the entire process involves scanning, point cloud generation, meshing, computer-aided designing, prototyping and final production. This section covers a very crucial part of the process — Meshing or simply put, Mesh.

To put a simple definition, a mesh is a network that constitutes of cells and points.

Mesh generation is the practice of converting the given set of points into a consistent polygonal model that generates vertices, edges and faces that only meet at shared edges. It can have almost any shape in any size. Each cell of the mesh represents an individual solution, which when combined, results in a solution for the entire mesh.

 

mesh

Mesh is formed of facets which are connected to each other topologically. The topology is created using following entities:

  • Facet - A triangle connecting three data points
  • Edge - A line connecting two data points
  • Vertex - A data point
Mesh Property

Before we proceed to know the types of meshes, it is necessary to understand the various aspects that constitute a mesh. It is important to know the concept of a polygonal mesh.

A polygon mesh is a collection of vertices, edges and faces that defines the shape of a polyhedral object in 3D graphics and solid modeling. The faces usually consist of triangles, quadrilaterals or other simple polygons as that simplifies rendering. It may also be composed of more general concave polygons or polygons with holes.

Objects created with polygon meshes must store different types of elements. These include:

  • Vertex: A position (usually in 3D space) along with other information such as color, normal vector and texture coordinates
  • Edge: A connection between two vertices
  • Face: A closed set of edges, in which a triangle face has three edges, and a quad face has four edges
  • Surfaces: They are often called smoothing groups. Generally, surfaces are not required to group smooth regions

A polygon mesh may be represented in a variety of ways, using different methods to store the vertex, edge and face data. These include:

  • Face-vertex meshes
  • Winged edge meshes
  • Corner tables
  • Vertex-vertex meshes
Types of meshes

Meshes are commonly classified into two divisions, Surface mesh and Solid mesh. Let us go through each section one by one.

Surface Mesh: A surface mesh is a representation of each individual surface constituting a volume mesh. It consists of faces (triangles) and vertices. Depending on the pre-processing software package, feature curves may be included as well.

Generally, a surface mesh should not have free edges and the edges should not be shared by two triangles.

The surface should ideally contain the following qualities of triangle faces:

  • Equilateral sized triangles
  • No sharp angles/surface folds etc. within the triangle proximity sphere
  • Gradual variation in triangle size from one to the next

The surface mesh generation process should be considered carefully. It has a direct influence on the quality of the resulting volume mesh and the effort it takes to get to this step.

surface mesh

Solid Mesh: Solid mesh, also known as volume mesh, is a polygonal representation of the interior volume of an object. There are three different types of meshing models that can be used to generate a volume mesh from a well prepared surface mesh.

The three types of meshing models are as follows:

  • Tetrahedral - tetrahedral cell shape based core mesh
  • Polyhedral - polyhedral cell shape based core mesh
  • Trimmed - trimmed hexahedral cell shape based core mesh

Once the volume mesh has been built, it can be checked for errors and exported to other packages if desired.

solid mesh

Mesh type as per Grid structure

A grid is a cuboid that covers entire mesh under consideration. Grid mainly helps in fast neighbor manipulation for a seed point.

mesh grid

Meshes can be classified into two divisions from the grid perspective, namely Structured and Unstructured mesh. Let us have a look at each of these types.

Structured Mesh: Structured meshes are meshes which exhibits a well-known pattern in which the cells are arranged. As the cells are in a particular order, the topology of such mesh is regular. Such meshes enable easy identification of neighboring cells and points, because of their formation and structure. Structured meshes are applied over rectangular, elliptical, spherical coordinate systems, thus forming a regular grid. Structured meshes are often used in CFD.

structured mesh

Unstructured Mesh: Unstructured meshes, as the name suggests, are more general and can randomly form any geometry shape. Unlike structured meshes, the connectivity pattern is not fixed hence unstructured meshes do not follow a uniform pattern. However, unstructured meshes are more flexible. Unstructured meshes are generally used in complex mechanical engineering projects.

Unstructured Mesh

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Mesh - List of operations

Good cell quality of meshes translate into accurate results within optimum time after computation. But more often than not, we get a mesh output, which is far from accuracy. There are number of factors affecting a mesh, that might compromise with the final result. This chapter focuses on the various shortcomings of a mesh and their repair algorithms.

Mesh Decimation/Simplification

Mesh decimation/simplification is the method of reducing the number of elements used in a mesh while maintaining the overall shape, volume and boundaries preserved as much as possible. It is a type of algorithm that aims to transform a given mesh into another with fewer elements (faces, edges and vertices). The decimation process usually involves a set of user-defined quality criteria, that maintains specific properties of the original mesh as much as possible. This process reduces the complexity of a mesh.

Before Mesh Decimation

 

After Mesh Decimation

 

Mesh Hole-Filling

To analyze a mesh model, it must be complete. Often, some mesh models carry holes in them, which must be filled. The unseen areas of the model appear as holes, which are aesthetically unsatisfying and can be a hindrance to algorithms that expect a continuos mesh. The Fill Hole command fills the holes and gaps in the mesh.

Note – The Fill Hole command only works on triangulated mesh and not tetrahedral mesh

Mesh Before Hole Filling

 

Mesh After Hole Filling

 

Mesh Refinement

Certain situations arise which makes us concerned about the accuracy a model in certain areas. Such scenarios prompt us to have fine mesh in those areas to ensure accurate results. However, creating a surface mesh of the entire model with a fine mesh size may ask for unnecessary hours to analyze the fine mesh in those regions where the results are not as important to you. The answer to this issue is the usage of refinement points.

A refinement point identifies a region or volume of space in which a finer mesh has to be generated. Mesh refinement can be defined by identifying an absolute size for the local mesh. Mesh refinement ends up in creating more number of elements in the specified region of the model.

Before Mesh Refinement

 

After Mesh Refinement

 

Mesh Smoothing

Mesh smoothing is also known as mesh relaxation. Sometimes it is necessary to modify that mesh after a mesh generation. It is achieved either by changing the positions of the nodes or by removing the mesh altogether. Mesh smoothing results in the modification of mesh point positions, while the topology remains as it is.

Before Mesh Smoothing

 

After Mesh Smoothing

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NPD/ID vocabulary

Bill of materials (BOM): A table containing a list of the components and the quantity of each required to produce an assembly.

BriefInstructions and requests provided to design team prior to the commencement of a project. 

Business analysis: The practice of identifying business needs and determining solutions to business problems.

Commercialization: The process of introducing a new product or production method into the market.

Concept design: An early phase of design process, where the broad outlines of function and form are articulated.

ErgonomicsApplication of principles that consider the effective, safe and comfortable use of design by humans.

Ideation: Idea generation or brainstorming.

Industrial design: The process of designing products used by millions of consumers around the world.

Market research: An organized effort to gather information about target markets or consumers.

New product development (NPD): The complete process which involves transformation of a market opportunity or product idea into a product available for sale.

New Product Introduction (NPI): New product introduction is the complete process of bringing a new product to market.

Patent: An exclusive right granted to an inventor by a sovereign authority, for a specified time period.

Pilot Run: An initial small production run produced as a check, prior to commencing full-scale production. 

Prototyping: An early sample, model, or release of a product built to test a concept or process or built to act as a commodity to be replicated or learned from.

SketchAn image that is quick to generate and does not contain complete detail.

S.W.O.TAnalysis framework for a company relative to its competitors, market, and industry: Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities & Threats.

Test marketing: An experiment conducted by companies to check the viability in the target market before full scale manufacture.

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Parametric and Non-parametric modelling

Up until now, we believe our readers got a clear explanation of reverse engineering. Let us give walkthrough — Reverse engineering is the process of extracting design information after studying a physical product, with the intent to reproduce the product, or to create another object that can interact with it.

In the past, designers resorted to physical measurement of the product to redraw its geometry. Today, designers use 3D scanners to capture measurements. The scanned data is then imported to CAD where the design can be analyzed, processed, manipulated and refined. Two key aspects that fall in place when focusing on reverse engineering process are:

Parametric Model/Modeling

A parametric model captures all its information about the data within its parameters. All you need to know for predicting a future data value from the current state of the model is just its parameters.
The parameters are usually finite in dimensions. For a parametric model to predict new data, knowing just the parameters is enough. A parametric model is one where we assume the ‘shape’ of the data, and therefore only have to estimate the coefficients of the model.

Non-parametric Model/Modeling

A non parametric model can capture more subtle aspects of the data. It allows more information to pass from the current set of data that is attached to the model at the current state, to be able to predict any future data.
The parameters are usually said to be infinite in dimensions. Hence, it can express the characteristics in the data much better than parametric models. For a non parametric model, predicting future data is based on not just the parameters but also in the current state of data that has been observed. A non-parametric model is one where we do not assume the ‘shape’ of the data, and we have to estimate the most suitable form of the model, along with the coefficients.

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Path to Product Development

If you are an engineering professional, most likely you are aware of how a physical product comes to life. From the early days of sketching and blueprints, manufacturing of a commodity has come a long way. The modern methodology of creating a product has not only changed drastically, but it has become way more efficient and precise in its approach. Today’s engineer lives and thrives in the world of 3-dimensional models. Whatever masterpiece a designer has in his mind, he has the tools and system to give it life. And it is not just limited to inception of a new idea being turned to a product; it has made the art of reverse engineering being implemented more than ever.

So what are the factors that have revolutionized this craft?

It is the safe to say that with the invention of new tools, techniques and computer, the road to new product development has become more smooth, accurate and flexible. Although a professional can get deep into the subject matter, this article gives a brief overview of the product development from technical perspective.

The footsteps to a new product can be summarized in the following sequence.

 

path to product developmentTo put it in words, here is how the entire sequence goes:

  • Scanning: Whether you have an entirely new idea on your mind, or you want to base your idea on an already existing product; you need a reference. Your reference can be either technical manuals from the manufacturer or the physical product itself. The first step is to scan the product using 3D scanners. 3D scanning technology comes in many shapes and forms. Scanners capture and store the 3D information of the product. The scanned information gets stored in the form of closely spaced data points known as Point Cloud.
  • Point Cloud: A point cloud is a collection of data points defined by a given coordinates system. In a 3D coordinates system, for example, a point cloud may define the shape of some real or created physical system.
  • Mesh: Point clouds are used to create 3D meshes. A mesh is a network that constitutes of cells and points. Mesh generation involves point clouds to be connected to each other by the virtue of vertices, edges and faces that meet at shared edges. There are specific softwares for carrying of meshing function.
  • 3D Model: Once the meshed part is generated, it goes through required software applications to be transferred to Computer Aided Design (CAD) tools to get transformed into a proper 3D CAD model. 3D model is the stage where whole sorts of applications such as sewing, stitching, etc, are implemented to create a prototype.
  • Testing: A prototype goes through numerous tests in this phase, to check for limitations and possible calibrations if necessary. This is done to determine the optimum stage where the prototype can be turned to a product.
  • Product: This is where the entire process comes to an end. Once a prototype is evaluated and finalized, it is sent for production in order to introduce it to the market.

 This introductory part gives you a summary of product development and the related technical terms. In the next chapters, we will dive deep and go through all the mentioned stages, one by one.

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Point Cloud Operations

No output is always perfect no matter how much the technology has evolved. Even though point cloud generation has eased up manufacturing process, it comes with its own anomaly. Generally, a point cloud data is accompanied by Noises and Outliers.

Noises or Noisy data means the data information is contaminated by unwanted information; such unwanted information contributes to the impurity of the data while the underlying information still dominates. A noisy point cloud data can be filtered and the noise can be absolutely discarded to produce a much refined result.

If we carefully examine the image below, it illustrates a point cloud data with noises. The surface area is usually filled with extra features which can be eliminated.

 

Point Cloud Before noise redeuction

 

After carrying out Noise Reduction process, the image below illustrates the outcome, which a lot smoother data without any unwanted elements. There are many algorithms and processes for noise reduction.

 

Point Cloud After noise reduction

 

Outlier, on the contrary, is a type of data which is not totally meaningless, but might turn out to be of interest. Outlier is a data value that differs considerably from the main set of data. It is mostly different from the existing group. Unlike noises, outliers are not removed outright but rather, it is put under analysis sometimes.

The images below clearly portray what outliers are and how the point cloud data looks like once the outliers are removed.

 

Point Cloud With outliers

 

Point Cloud Without outliers

 

Point Cloud Decimation

We have learned how a point cloud data obtained comes with noise and outliers and the methods to reduce them to make the data more executable for meshing. Point cloud data undergoes several operations to treat the anomalies existing within. Two of the commonly used operations are Point Cloud Decimation and Point Cloud Registration.

A point cloud data consists of millions of small points, sometimes even more than what is necessary. Decimation is the process of discarding points from the data to improve performance and reduce usage of disk. Decimate point cloud command reduces the size of point clouds.

The following example shows how a point cloud underwent decimation to reduce the excess points.

Point Cloud Before decimation

 

Point Cloud After decimation

 

Point Cloud Registration

Scanning a commodity is not a one step process. A lot of time, scanning needs to be done separately from different angles to get views. Each of the acquired data view is called a dataset. Every dataset obtained from different views needs to be aligned together into a single point cloud data model, so that subsequent processing steps can be applied. The process of aligning various 3D point cloud data views into a complete point cloud model is known as registration. The purpose is to find the relative positions and orientations of the separately acquired views, such that the intersecting regions between them overlap perfectly.

Take a look at the example given below. The car door data sets have been merged to get a complete model.

 

Point Cloud before registration

 

Point Cloud After registration

 

 

 

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Point Clouds

Whether working on a renovation project or making an information data about an as-built situation, it is understandable that the amount of time and energy spent on analysis of the object/project in hand can be quite debilitating. Technical literatures over the years, has come up with several methods to make a precise approach. But inarguably, the most prominent method is the application of Point Clouds.

3D scanners gather point measurements from real-world objects or photos for a point cloud that can be translated to a 3D mesh or CAD model.

But what is a Point Cloud?

A common definition of point clouds would be — A point cloud is a collection of data points defined by a given coordinates system. In a 3D coordinates system, for example, a point cloud may define the shape of some real or created physical system.

Point clouds are used to create 3D meshes and other models used in 3D modeling for various fields including medical imaging, architecture, 3D printing, manufacturing, 3D gaming and various virtual reality (VR) applications. A point is identified by three coordinates that, correlate to a precise point in space relative to a point of origin, when taken together.
Point CloudThere are numerous ways of scanning an object or an area, with the help of laser scanners which vary based on project requirement. However, to give a generic overview of point cloud generation process, let us go through the following steps:

  1. The generation of a point cloud, and thus the visualization of the data points, is an essential step in the creation of a 3D scan. Hence, 3D laser scanners are the tools for the task. While taking a scan, the laser scanner records a huge number of data points returned from the surfaces in the area being scanned.
  1. Import the point cloud that the scanner creates into the point cloud modeling software. The software enables visualizing and modeling point cloud, which transforms it into a pixelated, digital version of the project. 
  1. Export the point cloud from the software and import it into the CAD/BIM system, where the data points can converted to 3D objects.
Different 3D point cloud file formats

Scanning a space or an object and bringing it into designated software lets us to further manipulate the scans, stitch them together which can be exported to be converted into a 3D model. Now there are numerous file formats for 3D modeling. Different scanners yield raw data in different formats. One needs different processing software for such files and each & every software has its own exporting capabilities. Most software systems are designed to receive large number of file formats and have flexible export options. This section will walk you through some known and commonly used file formats. Securing the data in these common formats enables the usage of different software for processing without having to approach a third party converter.

Common point cloud file formats

OBJ: It is a simple data format that only represents 3D geometry, color and texture. And this format has been adopted by a wide range of 3D graphics applications. It is commonly ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange).

PLY: The full form of PLY is the polygon file format. PLY was built to store 3D data. It uses lists of nominally flat polygons to represent objects. The aim is to store a greater number of physical elements. This makes the file format capable of representing transparency, color, texture, coordinates and data confidence values. It is found in ASCII and binary versions.

PTS, PTX & XYZ: These three formats are quite common and are compatible with most BIM software. It conveys data in lines of text. They can be easily converted and manipulated.

PCG, RCS & RCP: These three formats were developed by Autodesk to specifically meet the demands of their software suite. RCS and RCP are relatively newer.

E57: E57 is a compact and widely used vendor-neutral file format and it can also be used to store images and data produced by laser scanners and other 3D imaging systems.

Challenges with point cloud data

The laser scanning procedure has catapulted the technology of product design to new heights. 3D data capturing system has come a long way and we can see where it’s headed. As more and more professionals and end users are using new devices, the scanner market is rising in a quick pace. But along with a positive market change, handling and controlling the data available becomes a key issue.

Five key challenges professionals working with point cloud face are:

  • Data Format: New devices out there in the market yields back data in a new form. Often, one needs to bring together data in different formats from different devices against a compatible software tool. This presents a not-so-easy situation
  • Data Size: With the advent of new devices, scanning has become cheaper with greater outputs. It is possible to scan huge assets from a single scan. This has resulted in the creation of tens of thousands of data points. A huge data of points can be challenging to handle and share between project partners.
  • Inter-operability: Integration between new technologies with the existing software can be quite arduous. Although, with careful investment of time and money, the goal can be achieved nonetheless.
  • Access: All the professionals involved in the entire lifecycle of a product can benefit from having access to point cloud data. But multiple datasets in multiple formats usually makes it more of a hassle.
  • Ownership: Who owns point cloud data? In the past, EPCs and the contractors who capture the data become custodians of the information.
  • Rendering: Different formats can result in rendering problems for point clouds.
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Product Tear Down Study

How do you determine procurement costs for product design, materials, and specifications? A superb way to get valuable insights and pinpoint design improvement and cost reduction opportunities is through a product teardown study. What is a product teardown?

In simple words, the process of disassembling a part to understand how it has been made and its functionalities are known as product teardown.

A product teardown process is an orderly way to know about a particular product and identify its parts, system functionality to recognize modeling improvement and identify cost reduction opportunities. Unlike the traditional costing method, tear down analysis collects information to determine product quality and price desired by the consumers. Companies can understand their competitor’s product, on what ground it differs from their own and manufacturing cost associated.

The three primary reasons for a product teardown study are:

  • Breakdown and Analysis:

It involves understanding the current technology, functionalities, and components of a product as well as identifying its strengths, weaknesses, and establishing areas for improvement.

  • Benchmarking:

Benchmarking is establishing a baseline in terms of understanding and representation of the product. It provides a comparison of new conceptual designs.

  • Knowledge and product improvement:

It involves gaining engineering knowledge to enact new room for concept development.

The entire product teardown process can be summed up in five steps:

  • Identifying the purpose of the teardown. This is to determine the models to be enacted as a result of the process
  • Creating data sheet where all insights will be listed
  • Gathering tools and documentation of the process
  • Analyzing the distribution of product
  • Disassembling of product, component measurement, and functionality assessment
  • Creating a bill of materials (BOM), models, and function flow diagram

The product tear down study technique has proven to be suitable to obtain crucial data about the manufacturing method, components, build-up model, functionality and strategies of competitors to find for improvement and coming up with a more refined version of a product.

Material Selection

Material selection stands out to be one of the most crucial aspects of engineering design as it determines the design reliability in terms of industrial and economic viewpoints. A great design needs appropriate material combinations, or else it will fail to be a profitable product. Engineers need to choose the best materials for the same, and there are several criteria they rely upon, such as property and its reaction to given conditions.  

Some important points to be included are:

  • Mechanical properties: A design needs to go through various manufacturing practices depending on the material. The primary goal is to prevent the failure of the product from a material viewpoint and ensure service fit. The materials are subject to stress, load, strength, and temperature variations.
  • Wear of materials: Most of the time, chances are that materials are contacting each other in a product. It can be seen in the case of gears. The selected materials should be able to withstand wear and tear.
  • Corrosion: This is a condition where the importance of material selection can be witnessed the most. It is evident in products open to the environment for an extended period. Materials like iron are highly prone to corrosion. So it is essential to make that the material is corrosion resistant and capable of being used for the product.
  • Manufacturing: Although the material is fit to be used for a product, it has to be appropriate for the manufacturing process. Improper machining can lead to a faulty product, and incorrect machining stems from an inability to put manufacturing functions of materials.
  • Cost: Cost is a crucial fact to consider while selecting materials. Certain metals are rare to obtain, considering their availability and lengthy refining process. Although the cost factor can be neglected when performance is given priority, overall associated costs should be considered nonetheless. There is a reason why plastics have massively replaced metals in the manufacturing process.  

 

 

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Reverse Engineering Inspection and its use

The quality control and inspection process in reverse engineering usually take three steps to determine if the 3D CAD model of the part is available or not. Those three steps are as follows:

  • The first step involves scanning the part and generating a computer model's point cloud format.
  • The second step involves merging and aligning the two computer models (CAD and Scanned one) to validate the part's specifications.
  • The final step, i.e., step three, includes visual computer model inspections and alignment of the merged models for any deviations in the geometry and dimensions.

The quality control outcome would be some recommendations for corrections, so the part meets perfectly with the blueprint specifications before the part's mass production.

Following are some uses of Reverse engineering inspection: 

  • Reverse engineering inspection comes in handy while carrying out Zero Article Inspection or ZAI. Zero article inspection is a type of workflow where the upcoming physical part doesn't follow the master design model but rather a derivative of the master model due to fluctuations in dimensions and tolerances. The review of the last digital representation before downstream purposes is known as zero article inspection. In this case, reverse engineering inspection provides sufficient information, allowing the inspector to check tolerances, dimensions, and any other information relevant to such projects. It gives assurance and confidence to produce quality components.
  • Reverse engineering inspection is an essential inspection of stylized parts/surfaces - where just dimensional inspection is not enough.
  • Reverse engineering inspection is an essential player during First Article Inspection (FAI). During the part manufacturing process, when an issue is detected with the manufactured part, the notification of the same has to go back to its design. The purpose is to keep the 3D CAD model in sync with the actual piece as manufactured. The hybridization of reverse engineering and inspection makes such updates easy to convey and apply, plus keeps the feedback circle opens across departments.
  • Reverse engineering inspection has found significant use in the additive manufacturing industry. Such a process helps bring down process-generated errors while calibrating & modifying building criteria to cut down the process itself's influence.
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