### Design Analysis - FEA, CFD, and Mold Flow Analysis

Over the years, the term “Design Analysis” has found a significant place for itself in the manufacturing sector. Instead of making a prototype and creating elaborate testing regimens to analyze the physical behavior of a product, engineers can evoke this information quickly and accurately on the computer.

Design analysis is a specialized computer software technology designed to simulate the physical behavior of an object.

If an object will break or deform or how it may react to heat are the sort of queries design analysis can answer. Design analysis helps in minimizing or even eliminate the need to build a physical prototype for testing. As a result, the technology has gone mainstream as a prized product development tool and found its presence in almost all sectors of engineering.

This article discusses three major design analysis software, namely:

• Finite Element Analysis (FEA)
• Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)
• Mold Flow Analysis
##### Finite Element Analysis (FEA)

The Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is a specialized simulation of a physical entity using the numerical algorithm known as Finite Element Method (FEM). It is used to reduce the number of physical prototypes and experiments and analyze objects in their design stage to develop better products faster. The term ‘finite’ is used to denote the limited, or finite, number of degrees of freedom used to model the behavior of each element.

FEA will analyze an object in question by breaking down its entire geometry into small ‘elements,’ which are put under simulated conditions see how the elements react. It displays the results as color-coded 3D images where red denotes an area of failure, and blue indicates fields that maintain their integrity under the load applied. However, note it down that FEA gives an approximate solution to the problem.

Mathematics is used to understand and quantify a physical phenomena such as structural or fluid behavior, wave propagation, thermal transport, the growth of biological cells, etc. Most of these processes are described using Partial Differential Equations. Finite Element Analysis has proven to be on of the most prominent numerical technique for a computer to solve these PEDs.

FEA is used in:

Problems where analytical solution is not easily obtained,

And mathematical expressions required because of complex geometries, loadings and material properties.

##### Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is a specilaized simulation used for the analysis of fluid flows through an object using numerical solution methods. CFD incorporates applied mathematics, physics and computing software to evaluate how a gas or liquid flows and how it affects an object as it flows past. CFD is based on Navier-Stokes equations which describe the way velocity, temperature, pressure, and density of a moving fluid are related.

Aerodynamics and hydrodynamics are two engineering streams where CFD analyses are often used. Physical quantities such as lift and drag or field properties as pressures and velocities are computed using CFD. Fluid dynamics is connected with physical laws in the form of partial differential equations. Engineers transform these laws into algebraical equations and can efficiently solve these equations numerically.The CFD analysis reliability depends on the whole structure of the process. The determination of proper numerical methods to develop a pathway through the solution is highly important. The software, which conducts the analysis is one of the key elements in generating a sustainable product development process, as the amount of physical prototypes can be reduced drastically.

CFD is used in almost all industrial domains, such as:

• Food processing
• Water treatment
• Marine engineering
• Automotive
• Aerodynamics
• Aerospace

With the help of CFD, fluid flow can be analyzed faster in more detail at an earlier stage, than by tesing, at a lower cost and lower risk. CFD solves the fundamental equations governing fluid flow processes, and provides information on important flow characteristics such as pressure loss, flow distribution, and mixing rates.

CFD has become an integral part of engineering and design domains of prominent companies due to its ability to predict performance of new designs and it intends to remain so.

##### Mold Flow Analysis

Moldflow, formerly known as C-mould, is one of the leading software used in processwide plastics solutions. Mold flow computes the injection molding process where plastic flows into a mold and analyzes the given mold design to check how the parts react to injection and ensure that the mold will be able to produce the strongest and uniform pieces. Two of the most popular mold flow analysis software are Moldflow and Moldex3D used exclusively by many mold makers.

There are three types of Mold flow analysis which are as follows:

• Moldflow Filling Analysis (MFA): It facilitates visualization of shear rate and shear stress plus determination of fiber orientation and venting. MFA can predict fill pattern and injection pressure while optimizing gating and runner system.
• Moldflow Cooling Analysis (MCA): MCA specializes in finding hot spots and calculating time to freeze. It helps in determining uneven cooling between core and cavity while specifying required cooling flow rates.
• Moldflow Warpage Analysis (MWA): Moldflow warpage is all about predicting, finding and determining warpage due to orientation.

We can see benefits of using different analysis procedures that correctly understand the power of the different simulation tools. During the product design, many these methods affect the cost and quality of the product, thereby ensuring the optimum productivity as aimed by the manufacturer.

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### Design principles of Jigs and Fixtures

The art of metalworking has a primary concern, locating the part to be machined relative to the platform. A CNC machine starts machining at a specific point corresponding to the fixture and proceeds from there. Therefore, the preciseness with which a job is machined is dependent on the accuracy that holds in the fixture. The accurate location of every part loaded into the fixture is essential. Any deviation in part location adds to the dimensional tolerance that must be assigned to the finished pieces. Furthermore, improper supporting and securing the part in the fixture affects surface finishes by temporarily or permanently deforming it. Hence, techniques for supporting, clamping, and locating must be considered together to assure repeatability from part to part.

##### Basic principles of Jigs and Fixtures design

LOCATING POINTS: Locating the work is a prime necessity and requires suitable facilities. The correct setup ensures smooth insertion of a workpiece in the proper position and removing a workpiece from a jig without operational hassles or time consumption. The workpiece position needs to be precise with the guiding tool in the jig or setup pieces in the fixture.

FOOLPROOF: A foolproof design of jigs and fixtures does not permit a tool or workpiece to be placed in any other way other than the intended one.

REDUCTION OF IDLE TIME: Jigs and Fixtures must be designed in such a way that ensures smooth loading, clamping, machining, and unloading of a

WEIGHT OF JIGS AND FIXTURES: A jig and fixture must be compact, easy to handle, and low cost regarding the number of materials used without giving up stiffness and rigidity.

JIGS PROVIDED WITH FEET: Some jigs require feet so that they can be placed on the table firmly.

MATERIALS FOR JIGS AND FIXTURES: Jigs and Fixtures are usually created with hardened materials to resist wear & tear and avoid frequent damage—for example, Mild steel, Cast iron, Die steel, High-speed steel, Caesium.

CLAMPING DEVICE: A suitable clamp is rated for its strength. It should be able to hold a workpiece firmly in its position while bearing the strain of the cutting tool simultaneously, without springing.

##### Broad rules of Jigs & Fixtures Design
• Compare the production cost of work between the existing tools and the tool to be made and see if the manufacturing price is not more than the expected gain.
• Determine location points and outline clamping arrangement.
• Make sure the clamping and binding pieces are as quick to act & efficient as possible.
• Make the jig and fixture foolproof.
• Make sure the locating points are adjustable.
• Do avoid intricate clamping arrangements.
• Round all corners.
• Make sure the operator has handles to make handling tasks easier.
• Provide ample amount of clearance.
• Provide holes for chips to escape.
• Systematically locate clamps to resist the pressure of the cutting tool while machining.
• To avoid springing action, place all clamps in proximity opposite to the bearing point of the workpiece.
• Test the jigs before putting them in a shop.
##### The 3-2-1 principle

Locating a part to be machined involves mainly three steps: Supporting, Positioning, and Clamping.

Two main intentions when placing a job on a jig/fixture are:

• Precisely positioning the part at the desired coordinates.
• Curbing all six degrees of movement so that the part cannot budge.

An extensively used method for obtaining these objectives is the 3-2-1 principle or six degrees of freedom for part location.

Image Source: Quora

The 3-2-1 method is a work-holding principle where three pins are located on the 1st principle plane, i.e., either XY, YZ, ZX. And two pins are located on the 2nd plane perpendicular to the 1st plane, and at last, one pin on the plane is mutually perpendicular to the 1st and 2nd planes. The aim is to constrain the movement of the workpiece along all three axes.

##### Design objectives of Jigs and Fixtures

Before sitting down to design jigs/fixtures, the designer must consider the following points:

• The tool must be foolproof to prevent any mishandling or accidental usage by the operator.
• Easy to operate for increasing efficiency.
• Easy to manufacture using the lowest costs.
• Its ability to weather the tool life instead of appropriate materials.
• Must be consistent at producing high-quality parts.
• Must be safe and secure to use.

The designer must know the basics of the process and the tools associated with it for which the jig/fixture is designed. Overall objectives to look out for a while developing such tools are:

• Cycle time.
• Type of Jig/Fixture.
• Part Assembly sequence or Machining locations.
• Joining or machining process.
• Clamping method and clamping sequence.
• Required output accuracy.
• Type of equipment to be used with the jig.
• Method of ejecting finished output and transferring it to the next. Platform, whether the manual or automatic mode.
• The type of material, recommended weight, number of spots involving welding.

Reference: National Institute of Technology, Calicut

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### Designing Jigs and Fixtures

The design of jigs and fixtures is dependent on numerous factors which are analysed to achieve optimum output. Jigs should be made of rigid light materials to facilitate secure handling, as it has to be rotated severally to enable holes to be drilled from different angles. It is recommended that four feet should be provided for jigs that are not bolted on the machine tool, to enable the jig to wobble if not well positioned on the table and thereby alert the operator. Drill jigs provide procedures for proper location of the work-piece concerning the cutting tool, tightly clamp and rigidly support the work-piece during machining, and also guide the tool position and fasten the jig on the machine tool.

To achieve their expected objectives, jigs and fixtures consist of many elements:

• Frame or body and base which has features for clamping
• The accuracy and availability of indexing systems or plates
• The extent of automation, capacity, and type of machine tool where jigs and fixtures will be employed
• Bushes and tool guiding frames for jigs
• The availability of locating devices in the machine for blank orientation and suitable positioning
• Auxiliary elements
• The strength of the machine tool under consideration
• The precision level of the expected product
• Fastening parts
• The available safety mechanisms in the machine tool
• The study of the fluctuation level of the machine tool

The factors below are to be reflected upon during design, production, and assembly of jigs and fixtures due to the targeted increase in throughput, quality of products, interchangeability, and more accuracy.

• Guiding of tools for slim cutting tools like drills
• Type of operations
• Inspection requirements
• Provision of reliable, rigid, and robust reinforcement to the blank
• Production of jigs and fixtures with a minimum number of parts
• Fast and accurate location of the jig or fixture blank
• Rapid mounting and un-mounting of the work-piece from the jig or fixture
• Set up time reduction
• Standard and quality parts must be used
• Reduction of lead time
• Easy disposal of chips
• Enhanced flexibility
##### Elements of Jigs and Fixtures

The significant features of Jigs and Fixtures are:

The body: The body is the most outstanding element of jigs and fixtures. It is constructed by welding of different slabs and metals. After the fabrication, it is often heat-treated for stress reduction as its main objective is to accommodate and support the job.

Clamping devices: The clamping devices must be straightforward and easy to operate, without sacrificing efficiency and effectiveness. Apart from holding the work-piece firmly in place, the clamping devices are capable of withholding the strain of the cutting tool during operations. The need for clamping the work-piece on the jig or fixture is to apply pressure and press it against the locating components, thereby fastening it in the right position for the cutting tools.

Locating devices: Thepin is the most popular device applied for the location of work-piece in jigs and fixtures.The pin’s shank is press-fitted or driven into a jig or fixture. The locating width of the pin is made bigger than the shank to stop it from being pressed into the jig or fixture body because of the weight of the cutting tools or work-piece. It is made with hardened steel.

Jig bushing or tool guide:Guiding parts like jig bushings and templates are used to locate the cutting tool relative to the component being machined. Jig bushes are applied in drilling and boring, which must be wear resistant, interchangeable, and precise. Bushes are mainly made of a reliable grade of tool steel to ensure hardening at a low temperature and also reduce the risk of fire crackling.

##### Selection of Materials

There is a wide range of materials from where jigs and fixtures could be made, to resist tear and wear, the materials are often tempered and hardened. Also, phosphor bronze and other non-ferrous metals, as well as composites, and nylons for wear reduction of the mating parts, and damage prevention to the manufacturing part is used. Some of the materials are discussed below:

• Phosphor Bronze: phosphor bronze is used in the production of jigs and fixtures for processes that involve making of interchangeable nuts in clamping systems like vices, and also incorporated feedings that require screws. As the manufacturing of screws is costly and also wastes a lot of time, the reduction of their tear and wear is often achieved by using replaceable bronze mating nuts made with phosphor bronze.
• Die Steels: the three variants of die steel - high chromium (12 %), high carbon (1.5 to 2.3%), and cold working steels are applied in the production of jigs and fixtures for the making of thread forming rolls, as well as cutting of press tools. When alloyed with vanadium and molybdenum for it to retain toughness at very high temperature, die steels are applied in the fabrication of jigs and fixtures that are used in high-temperature work processes which include extrusion, forging, and casting processes.
• High-Speed Steels: High-speed steels which contain more quantity of tungsten and less quantity of chromium and vanadium have high toughness, hardness retention at high temperature, and excellent wear, tear and impact resistance. When tempered, they are applied in the production of jigs and fixtures for reaming, drilling, boring, and cutting operations.
• Carbon Steels: when tempered with oil, carbon steels are applied in the making of some jig and fixture parts which are exposed to tear and wear like the locators and jig bushes.
• Mild steels: Mild steel, which contains about 0.29% of Carbon, is very cheap and because of their easy availability is often the choicest material for the making of jigs of fixtures.

Other materials for the making of jigs and fixtures include Nylon and Fibre, steel castings, stainless steel, cast iron, high tensile steels, case hardening steels, and spring steels.

Reference

Charles ChikwenduOkpala, EzeanyimOkechukwu C “The Design and Need for Jigs and Fixtures in Manufacturing” Science Research.Vol. 3, No. 4, 2015, pp. 213-219. DOI: 10.11648/j.sr.20150304.19

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### Faceted Modeling and NURBS

Modern CAD systems and CAD packages enable designers to model objects and retrieve them in their formats. Some formats are interchangeable while some enforce restrictions, upon which, it becomes difficult to transfer an object model from one form to another.

This article describes some of the most used CAD formats in the industry. But before we look into various CAD formats, it is essential to understand the concept of Faceted geometry and Analytic geometry (NURBS).

##### FACETED GEOMETRY

Faceted geometry, also known as discrete geometry, are models which consist of groups of polygons which is often triangles.

Most Computer-Aided Design (CAD) systems typically use continuous surface and edge definitions based on NURBS. CAE simulations break down this NURBS representation into facets by a process known as meshing. The faceted models are quite appealing to engineering marketing, as such simulations are less bothered with exact physical reality and tend to emphasize on creating eye-catching visuals, such as airflow over a car, which can be incorporated into a marketing brochure. File formats typically used for faceted models are: .3ds, .dxf, .obj, .stl (Stereolithography).

Almost all the faceted formats, except for STL, reflect material properties such as glass and metal by providing groupings of facets. However, such groupings are inadequate for a CAE simulation.

##### ANALYTIC GEOMETRY (NURBS)

NURBS or Non-uniform rational basis spline describes curves and surfaces with mathematical functions, and form the most common analytic geometry representations. The NURBS geometry has unlimited resolution. The NURBS definition defines the location of the boundary points and uses control points with slope definition to determine the internal shape of curves and surfaces, thereby enabling a great deal of flexibility. NURBS geometry is typically produced in CAD systems such as CATIA, Pro/Engineer, Solidworks, NX, etc. A significant drawback of NURBS geometry is that they are generally specific to the CAD packages that created them, and interchanging formats can be error-prone and inaccurate.

##### DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FACETED GEOMETRY AND ANALYTIC GEOMETRY (NURBS)

 Faceted geometry NURBS geometry Facets are always guaranteed to comply with the original definition In NURBS geometry, different levels of model detail are created without losing fidelity Faceted geometry describes a shape as a mesh, points usually connected by triangles Analytic geometry defines curves and surfaces with mathematical functions Faceted geometry has limited resolution NURBS geometry has unlimited resolution Evaluating  a faceted surface, one can get a shape defined by linear interpolation between known discrete points One can assess a NURBS surface anywhere and get coordinates lying on the surface Simple definition Includes topology

 Cons of Faceted geometry Cons of NURBS geometry Fixed resolution More computing intense No topology High data exchange

Although faceted geometry has its use, NURBS geometry is superior for design and manufacturing processes. Due to the high demands on geometric precision, NURBS geometry finds its place in CAE applications. But if the modeling requirements ask for stunning visuals, faceted models are worth giving a try.

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### Future of Reverse Engineering

Reverse engineering found its use in various industries gradually, as more and more industry leaders adopted this approach and implemented the same, thereby easing out their own work-process. Here is a list of industries that use reverse engineering as a part of their methods:

• Manufacturing/Heavy machine
• Automotive
• Software development
• Military projects
• Space expeditions
• Aerospace
• Architecture
• Oil & gas
##### The future

It is the 21st century. These are great times for design engineers. Over the past two decades, their job has been dramatically changed, with the transformation of finite element analysis (FEA) software from mainframe to desktop computer. With the easy availability of computer-aided design software packages, reverse engineering technology has become a practical means to create a 3D virtual model of an existing physical part. That, in turn, has made the use of 3D CAD, CAM, or other CAE applications easier.

The convenience in the usage, affordability and the ability of its software to tightly integrate with a CAD program has made this process a much favored among engineers. At the same time, the costs of scanners and other hardware used to input measurements have been dropping, and the hardware is becoming smaller and easier to use, according to the hardware makers.

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### Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T)

The design model is a depiction of a part design. However, the design model can never be an accurate representation of the product itself. Due to shortcomings in manufacturing and inspection processes, physical parts never match the design model exactly. An essential aspect of a design is to specify the lengths the part features may deviate from their theoretically accurate geometry. It is vital that the design intent and functionality of the part be communicated between the design engineers and the manufacturing unit. It is where the approach of GD&T comes into play.

Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing or GD&T is a language of symbols and standards used on engineering drawings and models to determine the allowable deviation of feature geometry.

GD&T consists of dimensions, tolerances, definitions, symbols, and rules that enable the design engineers to convey the design models appropriately. The manufacturing unit uses the language to understand the design intent.

To master GD&T, one needs to understand the crucial concepts, which includes:

• Machining tolerances: Tolerances mean the allowable amount of deviation from the proposed drawing. Machined parts look flat and straight through the naked eye, but if viewed with calipers, one can find imperfections all over. These imperfections or variations are allowed within the tolerance constraints placed on the parts. Tolerances should be kept as large while preserving the functions of the part.
• The Datum Reference Frame: DRF is the most important aspect of GD&T. It is a three-dimensional cartesian coordinate system. It’s a skeletal reference to which all referenced geometric specifications are related.
• GD&T Symbols: It is essential to be familiar with numerous symbols and types of applied tolerance in GD&T. The language of symbols makes it easier to interpret designs and improve communications from the designer to the shop. By using GD&T standard, the design intent is fully understood by suppliers all over the world.

• Feature Control Frame: The feature control frame describes the requirements or instructions for the feature to which it is attached. A feature control frame contains only one message. If a feature needs two messages, the feature would need the corresponding amount of feature control frames for every message required.
• Basic Dimensions: Basic dimensions are exact numerical values in theory, which defines the size, orientation, form, or location of a part or feature.
• Material Condition Modifiers: It is often necessary to state that a tolerance applies to a feature at a particular feature size. The Maximum Material Condition (MMC) allows an engineer to communicate that intent.

GD&T is an efficient way to describe the dimensions and tolerances compared to traditional approximation tolerancing. The engineer might design a part with perfect geometry in CAD, but the produced part, more often than not, turns out to be not accurate. Proper use of GD&T improves quality and reduce time and cost of delivery by providing a common language for expressing design intent.

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### Mesh - List of operations

Good cell quality of meshes translate into accurate results within optimum time after computation. But more often than not, we get a mesh output, which is far from accuracy. There are number of factors affecting a mesh, that might compromise with the final result. This chapter focuses on the various shortcomings of a mesh and their repair algorithms.

##### Mesh Decimation/Simplification

Mesh decimation/simplification is the method of reducing the number of elements used in a mesh while maintaining the overall shape, volume and boundaries preserved as much as possible. It is a type of algorithm that aims to transform a given mesh into another with fewer elements (faces, edges and vertices). The decimation process usually involves a set of user-defined quality criteria, that maintains specific properties of the original mesh as much as possible. This process reduces the complexity of a mesh.

##### Mesh Hole-Filling

To analyze a mesh model, it must be complete. Often, some mesh models carry holes in them, which must be filled. The unseen areas of the model appear as holes, which are aesthetically unsatisfying and can be a hindrance to algorithms that expect a continuos mesh. The Fill Hole command fills the holes and gaps in the mesh.

Note – The Fill Hole command only works on triangulated mesh and not tetrahedral mesh

##### Mesh Refinement

Certain situations arise which makes us concerned about the accuracy a model in certain areas. Such scenarios prompt us to have fine mesh in those areas to ensure accurate results. However, creating a surface mesh of the entire model with a fine mesh size may ask for unnecessary hours to analyze the fine mesh in those regions where the results are not as important to you. The answer to this issue is the usage of refinement points.

A refinement point identifies a region or volume of space in which a finer mesh has to be generated. Mesh refinement can be defined by identifying an absolute size for the local mesh. Mesh refinement ends up in creating more number of elements in the specified region of the model.

##### Mesh Smoothing

Mesh smoothing is also known as mesh relaxation. Sometimes it is necessary to modify that mesh after a mesh generation. It is achieved either by changing the positions of the nodes or by removing the mesh altogether. Mesh smoothing results in the modification of mesh point positions, while the topology remains as it is.

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### Neutral 3D CAD File Formats

Every CAD design/model, upon completion, is stored in a respective file format. A 3D file format stores information about 3D models in plain text or binary data. The 3D formats encode a model’s

geometry, which describes its shape,

scene, which includes position of light and peripheral objects;

appearance, which means colors and textures;

and animations, which defines how a 3D model moves.

Not every 3D format stores all such data. Each software comes with its 3D file formats. However, every software has a different file format due to many reasons such as cost, feature, etc. It is necessary for any two software to enable interchangeability/interoperability to make things work. Some of the popular 3D file formats are STL, OBJ, FBX, COLLADA, etc. Each industry comes with its version of 3D file formats. This article gives a brief description of 3D file formats.

##### SALIENT FEATURES OF 3D FILE FORMATS

Considering there are different file types, it is essential to understand the various properties. Different file types allow CAD model viewing in different ways. Some CAD files are limited to only 2D viewing to show the end customer. Following are the main features of 3D file formats:

Proprietary or neutral

The two main types of file format are – proprietary and neutral. All CAD design software uses a proprietary file type. This file type is specific to that particular software. Generally, such file types can only be viewed using the same software it was created with. However, it won’t open in a completely different design program. Proprietary files could be used in intercompany tasks.

Neutral files, on the other hand, are designed to be interoperable. Hence they can be viewed on a multitude of programs. Neutral data come in handy if the document is being distributed to end-users who don’t use CAD software.

Precise or tessellated

CAD designs are displayed in two different ways, namely, precise or tessellated. The difference lies in the fact that the product that is viewed while designing looks quite different from the actual product in real life. It is particularly noticeable in the case of lines and edges that form the product shape. This differentiates between precise drawings versus tessellated drawings.

To create a product, CAD software uses precise lines and angles to complete complex manufacturing processes. Such specific instructions have to be included in a file format to edit the actual drawing or change its design. While displaying a CAD drawing for visual purposes, the lines and edges are tessellated.

Type of assembly

Multi-part designs present a complicated situation while choosing a file format. Depending on the type of file format, multi-part product design may be limited to one single file for the whole assembly. Alternatively, designers also opt for separate files for each component. Awareness of how a particular software will display a multi-part product or if it will display a multi-part product is essential.

Parts Listings

CAD designs accompany models with a list of parts. Different 3D file formats come up with different ways of showing parts list. Two main types of parts list displays are Bill of Material (BOM) and flat list. A bill of material showcases a single part and all its positions in a drawing. A flat list shows all parts individually.

Now that the different features of 3D CAD file formats have been explained, let us walk through some of the popular and most used file formats out there.

##### NEUTRAL FILE FORMATS

To counter interoperability, neutral file formats, also called open source formats, are used as intermediate formats for converting between two proprietary formats. Naturally, these formats are widely used nowadays. Two known examples of neutral formats are STL (with a .STL extension) and COLLADA (with a .DAE extension).  They are used to share models across CAD software.

3D CAD file formats generally fall into two categories: Native or Neutral file formats.

• Native file formats are exclusive to particular CAD software, which can be used with the respective software only.
• Neutral or Standards were explicitly created to enable interoperability, which helps the exchange of files between different CAD software. Neutral file formats allow easier transfer of files with someone who uses different CAD software.
##### DIFFERENT 3D FILE FORMATS
• STEP: STEP is the most recommended and widely used of 3D file Formats. It is an ISO 10303-21 certified standard. Most of the software support STEP importing and exporting.
• IGES: IGES is the abbreviation for Initial Graphics Exchange Specification. It is a vendor-neutral file format. Using IGES, a CAD user can exchange 3D models in the form of circuit diagrams, wireframe, or solid models. Applications backed by IGES include traditional engineering drawings, analysis models, and other manufacturing functions
• Parasolid: Parasolid, initially developed by ShapeData, is now owned by Siemens PLM Software. It is licensed to other companies for use in their 3D computer graphics software products.
• STL: STL, which stands for stereolithography, is the universal format for pure 3D information. It is used in 3D printers and somewhat loved by CAM. STL denotes only the surface geometry of a 3D object without any representation of color, texture, or other common CAD model attributes.
• VRML: VRML stands for Virtual Reality Modeling Language. It is a standard file format for representing 3D interactive vector graphics.
• X3D: X3D is an ISO standard XML-based file format for representing 3D computer graphics. X3D features extensions to VRML (e.g., CAD, Geospatial, NURBS, etc.).
• DXF: DXF stands for Drawing Interchange Format, or Drawing Exchange Format. It is a simple 2D format and technically should be viewed as a Native format. It is Autocad’s native 2D format.
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### NPD/ID vocabulary

Bill of materials (BOM): A table containing a list of the components and the quantity of each required to produce an assembly.

BriefInstructions and requests provided to design team prior to the commencement of a project.

Business analysis: The practice of identifying business needs and determining solutions to business problems.

Commercialization: The process of introducing a new product or production method into the market.

Concept design: An early phase of design process, where the broad outlines of function and form are articulated.

ErgonomicsApplication of principles that consider the effective, safe and comfortable use of design by humans.

Ideation: Idea generation or brainstorming.

Industrial design: The process of designing products used by millions of consumers around the world.

Market research: An organized effort to gather information about target markets or consumers.

New product development (NPD): The complete process which involves transformation of a market opportunity or product idea into a product available for sale.

New Product Introduction (NPI): New product introduction is the complete process of bringing a new product to market.

Patent: An exclusive right granted to an inventor by a sovereign authority, for a specified time period.

Pilot Run: An initial small production run produced as a check, prior to commencing full-scale production.

Prototyping: An early sample, model, or release of a product built to test a concept or process or built to act as a commodity to be replicated or learned from.

SketchAn image that is quick to generate and does not contain complete detail.

S.W.O.TAnalysis framework for a company relative to its competitors, market, and industry: Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities & Threats.

Test marketing: An experiment conducted by companies to check the viability in the target market before full scale manufacture.

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### Path to Product Development

If you are an engineering professional, most likely you are aware of how a physical product comes to life. From the early days of sketching and blueprints, manufacturing of a commodity has come a long way. The modern methodology of creating a product has not only changed drastically, but it has become way more efficient and precise in its approach. Today’s engineer lives and thrives in the world of 3-dimensional models. Whatever masterpiece a designer has in his mind, he has the tools and system to give it life. And it is not just limited to inception of a new idea being turned to a product; it has made the art of reverse engineering being implemented more than ever.

So what are the factors that have revolutionized this craft?

It is the safe to say that with the invention of new tools, techniques and computer, the road to new product development has become more smooth, accurate and flexible. Although a professional can get deep into the subject matter, this article gives a brief overview of the product development from technical perspective.

The footsteps to a new product can be summarized in the following sequence.

To put it in words, here is how the entire sequence goes:

• Scanning: Whether you have an entirely new idea on your mind, or you want to base your idea on an already existing product; you need a reference. Your reference can be either technical manuals from the manufacturer or the physical product itself. The first step is to scan the product using 3D scanners. 3D scanning technology comes in many shapes and forms. Scanners capture and store the 3D information of the product. The scanned information gets stored in the form of closely spaced data points known as Point Cloud.
• Point Cloud: A point cloud is a collection of data points defined by a given coordinates system. In a 3D coordinates system, for example, a point cloud may define the shape of some real or created physical system.
• Mesh: Point clouds are used to create 3D meshes. A mesh is a network that constitutes of cells and points. Mesh generation involves point clouds to be connected to each other by the virtue of vertices, edges and faces that meet at shared edges. There are specific softwares for carrying of meshing function.
• 3D Model: Once the meshed part is generated, it goes through required software applications to be transferred to Computer Aided Design (CAD) tools to get transformed into a proper 3D CAD model. 3D model is the stage where whole sorts of applications such as sewing, stitching, etc, are implemented to create a prototype.
• Testing: A prototype goes through numerous tests in this phase, to check for limitations and possible calibrations if necessary. This is done to determine the optimum stage where the prototype can be turned to a product.
• Product: This is where the entire process comes to an end. Once a prototype is evaluated and finalized, it is sent for production in order to introduce it to the market.

This introductory part gives you a summary of product development and the related technical terms. In the next chapters, we will dive deep and go through all the mentioned stages, one by one.

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