About Reverse Engineering

Reverse Engineering is a process of duplicating an existing component, subassembly, or product, without the aid of drawings, documentation, or computer model. Reverse engineering is very common in such diverse fields as software engineering, entertainment, automotive, consumer products, microchips, chemicals, electronics, and mechanical designs.

Reverse Engineering in Prescient Technologies

Prescient Technologies is known for solving complex, algorithmic, engineering problem. We prefer using best and advance software's that help us to give better results in solving complex engineering problems.

Our Offerings -

1- Reverse Engineering.

It is the process of designing, manufacturing, assembling, and maintaining products and systems. There are two types of engineering, forward engineering and reverse engineering. Forward engineering is the traditional process of moving from high-level abstractions and logical designs to the physical implementation of a system.In some situations, there may be a physical part/ product without any technical details, such as drawings, bills-of-material, or without engineering data. The process of duplicating an existing part, subassembly, or product, without drawings, documentation, or a computer model is known as reverse engineering. Reverse engineering provides a solution to this problem because the physical model is the source of information for the CAD model. This is also referred to as the physical-to-digital process.

2- Why Use Reverse Engineering?

Reverse engineering is now widely used in numerous applications, such as manufacturing, industrial design, and jewelry design and reproduction For example, when a new car is launched on the market, competing manufacturers may buy one and disassemble it to learn how it was built and how it works.

3- Reverse Engineering Process.

The process of duplicating an existing component, subassembly, or product, without the aid of drawings, documentation, or computer model is known as reverse engineering. Reverse engineering can be viewed as the process of analyzing a system to: Identify the system's components and their interrelationships.

Two type of 3D measure equipment commonly used in reverse engineering are -
1- Contact 3D Scanners

It’s easiest to think of 3D scanners as intense cameras, but instead of creating photographs or videos, they create 3D renderings.Contact scanners, as the name suggests, require direct contact with the object that they are scanning.

i - How contact 3D Scanners works.

Contact 3D scanners probe the subject through physical touch, while the object is in contact with or resting on a precision flat surface plate, ground and polished to a specific maximum of surface roughness. Where the object to be scanned is not flat or cannot rest stably on a flat surface, it is supported and held firmly in place by a fixture

Scan to Cad – The process

1- In this process with the help of portable CMM, data collection and design are done in the same time.2- Then the portable CMM is connected to CAD modeling software (Soildworks) or Reverse engineering software (Geomagic Design X).3- Sometime a third party plugin is required according to the project requirement to make the direct connection between the CMM and the software.4- After the collected surface management using the probe, 3D coordinates are collected immediately in the software.

ii - How Non-Contact 3D Scanners

WorkNon-contact scanners use laser light or radiation (such as X-ray or ultrasound) to gather information about the object.Non 3D scanners are believed value full as upcoming technology when compared to 3D Scanners. Contact 3D scanners are perceived as a more established form of measurement equipment compared to non-contact based 3D scanners due to its legacy.

Scan to CAD process

1- First all the 3D scans of the entire part is captured by 3D scanner, the scan data is clean up before the process of creating the CAD model. 2- The scan data is used as a visual reference to sketch showing the features of parts until the competition of CAD model.3- Sometime it is similar to using CMM, when a plugin is required to provide extra tools inside CAD modeling software.

4- Different Ways of capturing Point Cloud Data

Different techniques of capturing spatial data make it possible to create point clouds with various characteristics.

i- Blue light scanning

The ATOS series of high quality industrial structured blue light 3D scanners provide precision scans with detailed resolution at high speeds. ATOS is a type of a coordinate measuring machine CMM that utilizes optical non-contact technology to capture millions of accurate points in a single fast scan.

ii- Laser Scanning

3D Laser Scanning is a non-contact, non-destructive technology that digitally captures the shape of physical objects using a line of laser light. 3D laser scanners create “point clouds” of data from the surface of an object.

iii- Long Range Scanning

Long range 3D scanning technology is used when an existing condition is needed to be known or verified. This could be to examine the complex shape involved, extract 3D measurements, or perform feasibility studies. Whether there is already 3D data available or it is suspect due to age or fabrication tolerances, high-density or long range scanning can provide new information to trust and base decisions upon.Capturing as-built conditions can eliminate variables in projects and greatly reduce the number of site visits required, since the 3D data can be re-visited instead to confirm or take additional measurements. 3D CAD models can be created from the 3D data generated by the long range scanning process or inspection reports generated from comparisons to existing 3D CAD models or other scan data.

iv- Laser Tracking

The operation of a laser tracker is easy to understand: It measures two angles and a distance. The tracker sends a laser beam to a retro-reflective target held against the object to be measured. Light reflected off the target retraces its path, re-entering the tracker at the same position it left. Retro-reflective targets vary, but the most popular is the spherically mounted retro-reflector (SMR). As light re-enters the tracker, some of it goes to a distance meter that measures the distance from the tracker to the SMR. The distance meter may be either of two types, interferometer or absolute distance meter (ADM).

V- White light Scanning

With structured white light, scans are typically accurate up to less than 0.001 of an inch. Structured light can capture a denser point cloud that typical laser scanning. Structured light scans can be so accurate that this process is a popular choice when a near exact virtual model is required.For this reason, white light scanning is ideal for scanning components such as sheet metal parts, tools and dies, turbine blades, molded/cast parts and intricate prototypes. And by using a non-contact process, data is collected efficiently with minimal setups.Since the dense point cloud captured by a structured light scanner can be interpolated into a CAD model like other 3D digitizing methods used by 3D Engineering Solutions, our unique modeling expertise is key to harnessing this unique technology for your reverse engineering and metrology applications.

5- Parametric vs Non Parametric Models.

1- Parametric Models

The word parametric principally means that MCAD software practices parameters. Prime significance of these parameters are measurements, and in MCAD software, dimensions determine the geometry, as contrasting to the geometry driving the proportions, which is the case in traditional 3D and 2D solid modellers. Therefore when you change a dimension value, this causes the model size to change. In addition, the constraints or relations used to produce the structures of a part are also captured in the model. Mechanical CAD (MCAD) modellers are often known as Parametric modellers are frequently referred to as and can be labelled as feature-based, parametric, surface and solid modelling design tools.

Key benefits of parametric modelling

There are many benefits of parametric modelling. Here are just a few of the key advantages: i- Provides a whole range of ways to view the model, including rendering. ii- It updates parts of the model, if changes occur to the design and there is a complete bi-directional association between parts. iii- Parametric modelling is more visually appealing and approachable. Particularly useful when the model is used in non-engineering functions. iv- It gives a clearer feel for what the final product will look like. Proportions and form can be better appreciated. v- Design intent can be more clearly captured, meaning it’s easier to input how the model should behave if the design is modified. vi- 3D systems provide automated drawing production. vii- It offers better integration with manufacturing process and helps to decrease the product development time. viii- The detail of the models makes them better for analysis and prototyping.

2- Non Parametric Models

A method commonly used in statistics to model and analyze ordinal or nominal data with small sample sizes. Unlike parametric models, nonparametric models do not require the modeler to make any assumptions about the distribution of the population, and so are sometimes referred to as a distribution-free method.Typically, this method will be used when the data has an unknown distribution, is non-normal, or has a sample size so small that the central limit theorem can't be applied to assume the distribution.Nonparametric models make weaker assumptions than parametric models. This means that the results are more general and less dependent on assumptions that are likely to be incorrect. However, they can be very challenging to interpret. Furthermore, parametric models smooth the data in a useful way, which can be very helpful in small sample problems. For instance, linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is a parametric method that frequently works quite well despite the parametric assumptions of Gaussian variables. One useful compromise is to take a semi-parametric approach, which pushes the nuisance parameters into the non-parametric part of the model, and uses a parametric structure on the part that you want to interpret.

6- What is Inspection?

Computer Aided Inspection (CAI) is a new technology that enables one to develop a comparison of a physical part to a 3D CAD model. This process is faster, more complete, and more accurate than using a Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) or other more traditional methods. An automatic inspection method and apparatus using structured light and machine vision camera is used to inspect an object in conjunction with the geometric model of the object.
1.Camera images of the object are analyzed by computer to produce the location of points on the object's surfaces in three dimensions.
2.Point-cloud data is taken from a laser scanner or other 3-D scanning device. During a setup phase before object inspection, the points are analyzed with respect to the geometric model of the object.
3.The software provides a graphical comparison of the manufactured part compared to the CAD model.
4.Many points are eliminated to reduce data-taking and analysis time to a minimum and prevent extraneous reflections from producing errors.
5.When similar objects are subsequently inspected, points from each surface of interest are spatially averaged to give high accuracy measurements of object dimensions.
6.The inspection device uses several multiplexed sensors, each composed of a camera and a structured light source, to measure all sides of the object in a single pass.

7- Use of Reverse Engineering Inspection

The reverse engineering inspection software allows you to compare scan data of your parts against CAD model. Generate inspection reports including color deviation plots, GD&T, 2D dimensions, flush and gap, animations or application specific dimensions such as blade profile inspection, twist angle inspection etc. are available as output.

Features :
Multiple Input Devices :

Allows the integration of touch probe, scanning and wide area data.

Alignments & Best Fits :

Compatibility with existing and preferred inspection schemes

Multi-CAD Capability :

Integration with any CAD environment

GD & T :

Supports advanced manufacturing quality systems

Comprehensive Reporting :

Tailored and automated color plot output and statistical analysis reporting.

8- Future/Evolution of Reverse Engineering

1- Reverse engineering would seem to be the opposite of innovation.

The process of taking something that has already been created and figuring out how it was done is arguably innovation’s antithesis. It sounds like cheating or even espionage, like a shameful rip-off of someone else’s inventiveness, taking an easy shortcut instead of doing original work. And yet cognitively speaking, successful innovation is remarkably like reverse engineering. But instead of applying that strategy to an existing product or technology, it’s applied to an imagined future state. It’s about defining what we would like to achieve, whether that’s a solution to some particular problem, a greater competitive edge, an improved product, a new source of revenue, a fresh insight or discovery, simply satisfying one’s curiosity, or some combination of the above. Then, with an objective identified, we’re positioned to imagine ways to achieve or reverse engineer.

2- New Technologies playing important role in New Product Development (NPD).

Some of the world’s largest and most successful companies would surely agree, since leveraging other technologies allows them to provide further value for users while freeing up resources to improve their core offering. Essentially, it’s like taking the path of least resistance. In order to continue to do what you do well, you sometimes need to rely on software that’s produced by other companies to shoulder the load. New product development (NPD) used to be a lengthy process that included prototypes, market research, focus groups, more market research and eventually - a good while later - the possibility of launch. Companies are heavily investing in information technology (IT) to enhance their market performance and competitiveness. IT also offers valuable opportunities in new product development for industrial companies. Several companies report that they successfully use IT in their new product development activities. This article explores how IT can be used to facilitate new product development activities and discusses its potential pitfalls. It also provides guidelines for successfully implementing IT in new product development.

3- Technology Upgradation & Process.

Technology Upgradtion enhance a product so that it has a higher value in the market or gives better results. It helps to be involved / undertaken several projects for process / product upgradation in areas such as – Plastics and Rubber Processing, Rusting and Painting Solution, Process Automation etc. Upgrated Technologies helps in improving workflow and process. Train a group of potential leaders representing all the functional areas on lean methodology and process improvement framework. Help the team in identifying the potential projects from process improvement angle, and impact on the final product being manufactured. Help the teams to identify potential measurable objectives that can be achieved from the complete exercise such as CTQ = Critical to quality, CTP = Critical to Process, CTT = Critical to Technology, CTC = Critical to Customer, CTM = Critical to Management. Help the teams in creating a detailed project plan indicating the potential goals to be accomplished, milestones for review with senior management. Identification of the bottlenecks to Improve the process velocity leading towards faster turnaround time Implementation of the identified projects for process and product improvement. Verify if the process is the most optimum! And the metrics for monitoring the process.

9- Industries using Reverse Engineering

Many new industries are employing 3D scanning not only to create 3D models of parts or products for reverse engineering but also to explore the composition and rapid production of ready-to-use parts via 3D printing.Even as the tools for extracting information from objects grow more sophisticated, there is still a lack of consensus as to what exactly constitutes “reverse engineering.” In the simplest terms, reverse engineering is the process of measuring precise 3D dimensions of an existing object and converting that information to a 3D CAD model.Reverse engineering’s steady growth is due to a number of factors. Companies are still using equipment from suppliers that are no longer in business or that have stopped supporting earlier models. When that equipment needs replacement components, reverse engineering offers a way to recreate those parts. The military has some of the largest needs in this regard because they are often making do with aircraft and machinery that has passed its original use-of-life estimate and is lacking specific technical data. Reverse engineering parts and systems enable aircraft to keep flying or machines to keep running.

Major industries using Reverse Engineering

Aerospace industry.
Agriculture and Fishing industry.
Timber industry.
Chemical industry.
Pharmaceutical industry.
Computer industry.
Software industry.
Construction industry.
Defense industry.
Arms industry.
Education industry.
Energy industry.
Electrical power industry.
Petroleum industry.